Model Mining Portfolio by Christopher Ecclestone

Manganese Usage in Batteries

It is not news that manganese is currently employed in that most prosaic of battery formats, the alkaline battery (think AA or AAA). There is nothing new in that but it does provide a constant demand for manganese and has done for over half a century. It is also one in which little effort goes into the recycling of the Manganese metal in batteries.

The cutting edge application is the Lithiated Manganese Dioxide (LMD or LMO) Battery. The Lithium-Mn  oxide spinel is a relatively new material with some proposing that, the ongoing expansion of the EV market may rely on its greater use in rechargeable batteries. LMO batteries are associated with good structural stability, low-cost and good electronic and lithium-ion conductivity. With growing concern over the safety and viability of other cathode designs spinels based on LiMn2O4 are growing in popularity as cathode materials.

Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) is a vital ingredient in the production of alkaline batteries with total annual production capacity estimated by the International Manganese Institute at roughly 430,000 mt. The pie at the right shows how (a few years back) the metal already had a strong position though overwhelmingly skewed towards alkaline battery applications.

Battery consumption of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) has been predicted to be fastest growing segment  of manganese production with a CAGR of 5.1% from 2015 to 2022.

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